Palgrave Communications: “Will the Sustainable Development Goals be fulfilled? Assessing present and future global poverty”

Palgrave Communications, an affiliate of Nature, has published an article by the Converting Geospatial Observations into Socioeconomic Data project lead Jesús Crespo Cuaresma and his colleagues. The article focuses on their efforts to assess the potential future trends in poverty as a means of monitoring progress toward the fulfillment of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) set forth by the United Nations. Crespo Cuaresma et al. have developed an econometric tool that provides a methodological framework to carry out projections of poverty rates worldwide and aims at assessing absolute poverty changes at the global level under different scenarios. The framework builds upon the combination of new estimates of the worldwide distribution of income and macroeconomic projections of population by age and educational attainment level, as well as income per capita, which have been recently developed in the context of climate change research.

The research is being undertaken in conjunction with the World Data Lab (WDL), an economist-founded organization dedicated to deploying new methods in data collection, data curation and dissemination, laying the groundwork to advance social and economic research on poverty in the most underdeveloped regions worldwide. Included in these efforts is the Converting Geospatial Observations project, which NOMIS is supporting. The project aims to develop the first-ever sub-national income model for Kenya. Jesús Crespo Cuaresma is head of the Institute of Macroeconomics at the Vienna University of Economics and Business.

Christian Haass is awarded world’s top brain research prize

NOMIS board member Christian Haass and three other neuroscientists — Bart De Strooper, Michel Goedert and John Hardy — are the recipients of the 2018 Brain Prize for their groundbreaking research on the genetic and molecular basis of Alzheimer’s disease. The research pioneered by these four European scientists has revolutionized our understanding of the changes in the brain that lead to Alzheimer’s disease and related types of dementia.

When Haass, professor at Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich and at the German Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases, started to work on Alzheimer’s disease in 1990, very little was known about the cellular mechanisms involved in this disease. He focused on the generation and metabolism of amyloid, the major component of the disease that signifies plaques. Haass hypothesized that amyloid production may be normal and not necessarily part of a pathological process, which at the time was the widely accepted general opinion in the field. This pivotal finding was highly significant and has since led to the development of therapies to lower amyloid production in patients. Working with Hardy, Haass has demonstrated how amyloid is generated and how genetic mutations seen in families with very aggressive and rare forms of Alzheimer’s affect its production.

Most recently, Haass has generated mouse models to investigate inflammation in neurodegenerative disorders, which according to his findings may at least initially play a protective role. He found that genetic mutations alter the function of special immune cells called microglia in the brain that can lead to Alzheimer’s disease. This has stimulated a completely new approach to designing possible new therapies by modulating the activity of microglia.

The Brain Prize, awarded by the Lundbeck Foundation in Denmark, is worth one million euros. Awarded annually, it recognizes one or more international scientists who have distinguished themselves by an outstanding contribution to neuroscience.

The collaborator: NOMIS researcher Eric Reiman is on a quest to prevent Alzheimer’s disease by sharing big data

“We are living in an
age in which no single person, laboratory or discipline has the resources and skills
to do everything that’s needed on one’s own.”

Eric Reiman, executive director of the Banner Alzheimer’s Institute, is leading the Platform for the Discovery of Alzheimer’s Disease Mechanisms and Treatments project, which will make the genetic data from the brain tissue of 100 donors publicly available. The platform will provide a foundation to develop one of the largest basic and translational neuroscience programs for the fight against Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and other neurodegenerative diseases. Emerging big-data analysis techniques will be used to discover molecular networks involved in the disease and molecular drivers of these networks, including those that could be targeted by new or repurposed treatments.

We spoke with Dr. Reiman about his work and his thoughts on collaboration on the eve of the NOMIS Distinguished Scientist Award 2017 ceremony in Zurich.

NOMIS: You began your career as a psychiatrist and brain imaging researcher. What motivated you to turn your focus to Alzheimer’s disease research?

ER: After moving to Arizona, I had been asked to join the local chapter of the Alzheimer’s Association, and I thought it would be nice to invest in an area of the community that had absolutely nothing to do with my work — I was interested in using brain imaging techniques to investigate regions of the brain that are involved in anxiety, emotion and other normal behaviors, as well as those that conspire to produce anxiety disorders. Even though I would occasionally evaluate patients with memory and thinking problems, it was only as a board member on that chapter that I fully developed an appreciation for the terrible toll that Alzheimer’s disease takes on affected persons and their families. So I decided to explore ways to help make a difference through my research on the brain.

“The opportunity to learn from, assist and work with colleagues from other disciplines and organizations has been one of the joys of my work.”

In 1993, I read a Wall Street Journal article noting the discovery of what turned out to be the major genetic risk factor for developing Alzheimer’s disease. Persons with one copy of the APOE4 gene had a higher risk, and persons with two copies had an even higher risk of developing the disease. I wondered, ‘What if there was a promising way to postpone, reduce, or prevent the clinical onset of Alzheimer’s disease?’ It would take too many healthy volunteers and too many years to evaluate these treatments in prevention trials, waiting for the onset of memory and thinking problems. I then thought, ‘What if we could detect and track the brain imaging changes associated with Alzheimer’s disease in middle-aged persons with two, one or no copies of this gene (i.e., in persons at three levels of genetic risk); thereby detect and track Alzheimer’s long before the onset of memory and thinking problems; and set the stage to use these and other methods to rapidly test prevention therapies and find ones that work, as soon as possible?’ It was kind of a novel idea at the time. But our findings helped kindle interest in the study of what we now call “preclinical Alzheimer’s disease” and ultimately set the stage for Alzheimer’s prevention trials. It would be a dream come true if we could find and support the approval of Alzheimer’s disease prevention therapies by 2025, and that dream motivates me each and every day.

NOMIS: What skills have helped you achieve success in your research? Has collaboration been an influencing factor?

ER: I think I have a knack for identifying good questions and finding new ways to work together with others to have the greatest impact. Why is collaboration so important to everything I do? Perhaps it’s an acute awareness of my own limitations [laughs]. In my opinion, advances in 21st century science and medicine will depend on new models of collaboration and data sharing. We are living in an age in which no single person, laboratory or discipline has the resources and skills to do everything that’s needed on one’s own.

“None of what we have done or hope to do would be possible in the absence of strategically informed collaborations.”

I’m often asked how we could get different organizations to work together so well in the Arizona Alzheimer’s Consortium. The key to our success has been a heightened sense of “scientific desperation.” With newer, smaller and growing programs in Arizona’s universities, research institutes and academic medical centers, we do not have illusions of self-sufficiency. We are motivated to reach out to partners from different disciplines and organizations to address shared goals and respective interests in more effective ways than we can do on our own. We have used state and private funds to conduct collaborative pilot studies, to foster push-pull relationships involving the development and use of new methods, and to find out which collaborations work. We then use the resulting data in publications and grant applications to support long-standing research programs. We have also capitalized on new public-private partnerships in the Alzheimer’s Prevention Initiative.

None of what we have done or hope to do would be possible in the absence of strategically informed collaborations, a track record of productivity in these collaborations and a genuine interest among each of the stakeholders to value their partners and address both their shared and mutual goals.

NOMIS: Collaboration has certainly been a cornerstone of your work. What qualities do you look for in fellow collaborators?

ER: I am always interested in working with interesting people — investigators with outstanding ideas, a track record of productivity, methodological strength and scientific rigor, as well as young investigators who are committed to developing those skills and using them in impactful ways. I look for people with complementary strengths, a collaborative spirit and shared values. And I look for that gleam in the eye during initial discussions about collaborative possibilities. The opportunity to learn from, assist and work with colleagues from other disciplines and organizations has been one of the joys of my work.

NOMIS: The Alzheimer’s platform project will generate a public resource of detailed gene expression data in an effort to galvanize the discovery of Alzheimer’s disease mechanisms, risk factors and treatments. How will this platform change Alzheimer’s disease research?

ER: In previous work, we generated a widely used public resource of neuronal gene expression data in 20 brain donors with and without the clinical and neuropathological features of Alzheimer’s disease. Those data have been used in hundreds of published studies to support the discovery of new Alzheimer’s disease susceptibility genes and possible disease mechanisms.

“We anticipate that this project will provide one of the most valuable and widely used data resources in the scientific fight against Alzheimer’s disease.”

With the advent of new technologies and big-data analysis methods, we can now generate detailed information about genes that are differentially expressed in individual brain cells and their relationship to inherited genes; use these data to explore the molecular networks involved in the development of Alzheimer’s disease; and provide molecular targets at which to aim new treatments. Moreover, we can provide an invaluable public resource of data to the field to further clarify risk factors and disease mechanisms, develop a more diverse portfolio of promising treatments, and do so in ways that might be particularly relevant to this fundamentally human disease.

We anticipate that this project will provide one of the most valuable and widely used data resources in the scientific fight against Alzheimer’s disease and a foundation for future studies. We’re excited about the chance to provide a bridge between these correlational data from people with experimental studies in laboratory models. It will enable us to find better ways to address Alzheimer’s disease than studies in people or laboratory models alone.

NOMIS: How will the platform change the way researchers collaborate?

ER: We are interested in promoting active “push-pull relationships” among researchers who conduct studies in expired brain donors, living people and laboratory models, helping them to capitalize on complementary approaches and converge findings to fulfill their respective and shared goals. We want to embed our big-data specialists in our basic science labs to help foster those collaborations and further clarify disease mechanisms. Once researchers see the added value of these kind of collaborative relationships, they will embrace the approach more fully in their own work. We are also interested in finding ways to share data and biological samples (for example, brain tissue) with researchers around the world, such that they can capitalize on their own expertise, resources and time to advance the scientific effort.

When it comes to the fight against Alzheimer’s disease — and to the advancement of science and medicine more generally — we’re all in this together. ♦

This interview was conducted by Sarah Stoeter and Cosima Crawford on Oct. 18, 2017 at ETH Zurich. Download the unabridged interview.

Eric Reiman is executive director of the Banner Alzheimer’s Institute and chief executive officer for Banner Research. He is also professor of psychiatry at the University of Arizona, university professor of neuroscience at Arizona State University, clinical director of neurogenomics at the Translational Genomics Research Institute (TGen) and director of the Arizona Alzheimer’s Consortium. He is a recipient of the Potamkin Prize for his contributions to Alzheimer’s disease research.

Sebastian Zeidler and Ingrid Vendrell-Ferran named NOMIS fellows at eikones

The NOMIS Postdoctoral Fellowship Program was launched at eikones — Center for the Theory and History of the Image at the University of Basel in 2017. Sebastian Zeidler and Ingrid Vendrell-Ferran are the first recipients of the fellowships at eikones, a center dedicated to the interdisciplinary study of images as instruments of human knowledge and cultural practice. The fellowships support groundbreaking research in the interdisciplinary field of image studies, specifically concerning the function of images as models in epistemic, aesthetic and didactic contexts.

Sebastian Zeidler holds a PhD in art theory and art criticism from Columbia University in New York, NY, United States, and most recently held the position of associate professor in the History of Modern Art at Yale University in New Haven, CT, United States. His monograph, “Form as Revolt: Carl Einstein and the Ground of Modern Art,” was published in 2016. As a NOMIS fellow, he is working on a research project on Edmund Husserl’s image theory and the art of Henri Matisse, investigating, for example, the way in which both the philosopher and the artist consider the possibility of the world’s appearance in its full splendor to depend on the individual’s removal or detachment from that world.

Ingrid Vendrell-Ferran earned a PhD in philosophy from the Free University in Berlin, Germany, in 2007 and qualified as a professor in 2017 with a book on the cognitive forms of literature. She is the author of the monographs “Die Emotionen: Gefühle in der realistischen Phänomenologie” (“Emotions: Feelings in Realistic Phenomenology”), and “Die Vielfalt der Erkenntnis: Eine Analyse des kognitiven Werts der Literatur” (“The Diversity of Knowledge: An Analysis of the Cognitive Value of Literature”). As a NOMIS fellow, she is applying the results of her second book on empathy in literature to the medium of film with a project titled “Imaginative Participation and Empathic Recognition in Documentary Film.”

PEGASuS grant recipients announced

On August 15, 2017, Future Earth announced the winners of the first round of grants for the Program for Early-stage Grants Advancing Sustainability Science (PEGASuS). The winning projects include topics such as the impacts of the cocaine trade on protected areas in Mesoamerica, the collection of indigenous knowledge of threatened native pollinators in Bolivia and sustainable farming in Malawi. They were selected through a global search that attracted dozens of proposals from over 50 countries.

The winning projects are:

“Drug trafficking and Central American protected areas: Focusing on participatory governance to conserve ecosystem services and biodiversity,” Bernardo Aguilar González (PI), Fundación Neotrópica
Sixty percent of total deforestation in biodiversity hot spots in Central America is linked to cocaine trafficking. The project will assess the impacts of drug transit on ecosystems services, biodiversity and environmental governance, and catalyze a regional observatory for continued monitoring of this alarming phenomenon.

“Farmer-led agroecological research in Malawi (FARM) for biodiversity,” Rachel Bezner Kerr (PI), Cornell University
The project will study the impact of agroecological farming methods on crop pest abundance and the biodiversity of beneficial insects and birds. If such farming practices increase wild biodiversity there are positive social and ecological implications for rural African communities.

“Toward biodiversity-related opportunities for sustainable development: A global social-ecological mountain comparison,” Markus Fischer (PI), GMBA and University of Bern
Mountains provide water to half of humankind, host one-third of terrestrial species and are home to more than 10 percent of the human population. This social-ecological research project will compare mountain ranges all over the world to identify opportunities for sustainable development related to mountain biodiversity.

“Nurturing a shift towards equitable valuation of nature in the Anthropocene (EQUIVAL),” Unai Pascual (PI), ecoSERVICES and Basque Centre for Climate Change
The state of biodiversity depends to a great extent on people’s behavior, which in turn is primarily determined by their perception of nature’s contributions to their well-being. The project will evaluate whether there is a positive relationship between equitable value articulation of nature and the effectiveness of nature conservation initiatives.

“Cross-pollinating knowledge systems: exploring indigenous local knowledge about native bee diversity and ecology,” Wendy R. Townsend (PI), University of Florida
Information is needed for planning and management of threatened Bolivian native pollinators because they service about 70 percent of tropical forest plants; losing the pollinators could negatively impact tree species diversity. The project will gather and analyze information about threatened native pollination systems in at least two indigenous territories in lowland Bolivia.

Project winners will receive a combined total of $600,000 in support from PEGASuS over a one-year period. The PEGASuS partners will announce a second round of grants, focusing on ocean sustainability, in the spring of 2018. A third round, addressing water, energy and food, is expected in early 2019.

The PEGASuS program is supported in part by the NOMIS Foundation. NOMIS funding ensures the inclusion of social scientists in these interdisciplinary projects.

TEDx: Ending the arms race with infectious diseases

Dr. Janelle Ayres, researcher at the NOMIS Center for Immunbiology and Microbial Pathogenesis, addresses the disconnect between our methods for treating infectious disease and our understanding of the mechanisms that keep us healthy during infection in her TEDxSanDiego talk. Only by eradicating the pathogen and limiting the collateral damage done to the body during an infection can we survive. Dr. Ayres discusses strategies for using the good bacteria living in our bodies, i.e., the microbiome, to develop new therapeutics for promoting survival of infectious disease.

Dr. Ayres is Assistant Professor at the NOMIS Foundation Laboratories for Immunobiology and Microbial Pathogenesis at the Salk Institute in La Jolla, California.